Permutations.java


Below is the syntax highlighted version of Permutations.java from §2.3 Recursion.


/*************************************************************************
 *  Compilation:  javac Permutations.java
 *  Execution:    java Permutations N
 *  
 *  Enumerates all permutations on N elements.
 *  Two different approaches are included.
 *
 *  % java Permutations 3
 *  abc
 *  acb
 *  bac 
 *  bca
 *  cab
 *  cba
 *
 *************************************************************************/

public class Permutations {

    // print N! permutation of the characters of the string s (in order)
    public  static void perm1(String s) { perm1("", s); }
    private static void perm1(String prefix, String s) {
        int N = s.length();
        if (N == 0) System.out.println(prefix);
        else {
            for (int i = 0; i < N; i++)
               perm1(prefix + s.charAt(i), s.substring(0, i) + s.substring(i+1, N));
        }

    }

    // print N! permutation of the elements of array a (not in order)
    public static void perm2(String s) {
       int N = s.length();
       char[] a = new char[N];
       for (int i = 0; i < N; i++)
           a[i] = s.charAt(i);
       perm2(a, N);
    }

    private static void perm2(char[] a, int n) {
        if (n == 1) {
            System.out.println(a);
            return;
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            swap(a, i, n-1);
            perm2(a, n-1);
            swap(a, i, n-1);
        }
    }  

    // swap the characters at indices i and j
    private static void swap(char[] a, int i, int j) {
        char c;
        c = a[i]; a[i] = a[j]; a[j] = c;
    }



    public static void main(String[] args) {
       int N = Integer.parseInt(args[0]);
       String alphabet = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
       String elements = alphabet.substring(0, N);
       perm1(elements);
       System.out.println();
       perm2(elements);
    }
}


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Last updated: Wed Feb 9 09:05:37 EST 2011.