Appendix E:   TOY Programming Cheatsheet


This appendix summarizes the 16 TOY instructions.


             TOY REFERENCE CARD


INSTRUCTION FORMATS
             
             | . . . . | . . . . | . . . . | . . . .|
  Format RR: | opcode  |    d    |    s    |    t   |  (0-6, A-B)  
  Format A:  | opcode  |    d    |       addr       |  (7-9, C-F)


ARITHMETIC and LOGICAL operations
    1: add              R[d] <- R[s] +  R[t]
    2: subtract         R[d] <- R[s] -  R[t]
    3: and              R[d] <- R[s] &  R[t]
    4: xor              R[d] <- R[s] ^  R[t]
    5: shift left       R[d] <- R[s] << R[t]
    6: shift right      R[d] <- R[s] >> R[t]

TRANSFER between registers and memory
    7: load address     R[d] <- addr
    8: load             R[d] <- M[addr]
    9: store            M[addr] <- R[d]
    A: load indirect    R[d] <- M[R[t]]
    B: store indirect   M[R[t]] <- R[d]

CONTROL
    0: halt             halt
    C: branch zero      if (R[d] == 0) PC <- addr
    D: branch positive  if (R[d] >  0) PC <- addr
    E: jump register    PC <- R[d]
    F: jump and link    R[d] <- PC; PC <- addr


Register 0 always reads 0.
Loads from M[FF] come from stdin.
Stores to M[FF] go to stdout.

16-bit registers (two's complement)
16-bit memory locations
 8-bit program counter